World and philosopher reflections جهان و تاملات فیلسوف
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World and philosopher reflections جهان و تاملات فیلسوف

جهان و تأملات فیلسوف” شامل ۱۵ مقاله از آرتور شوپنهاور در مورد مسائل مختلف است. در “جهان و تأملات فیلسوف” بسیاری از دغدغه هایی که افراد به طور روزانه با آن ها روبرو می شوند مورد بررسی و توجه قرار گرفته اند. بخش ها و فصول این کتاب عبارتند از….

ISBN: 9789643059538 | Pages: 272 | Size: 14×21 cm | Edition: 14 (2021)
This edited collection investigates the kinds of philosophical reflection we can undertake in the imaginative worlds of literature. Opening with a look into the relations between philosophical thought and literary interpretation, the volume proceeds through absorbing discussions of the ways we can see life through the lens of literature, the….

$19.80

7 in stock


Description

This edited collection investigates the kinds of philosophical reflection we can undertake in the imaginative worlds of literature. Opening with a look into the relations between philosophical thought and literary interpretation, the volume proceeds through absorbing discussions of the ways we can see life through the lens of literature, the relations between philosophical saying and literary showing, and some ways we can see the literary past philosophically and assess its significance for the present. Taken as a whole, the volume shows how imagined contexts can be a source of knowledge, a source of conceptual clarification, and a source of insight and understanding. And because philosophical thinking is undertaken, after all, in words, a heightened sensitivity to the precise employments of our words – particularly philosophically central words such as truth, reality, perception, knowledge, selfhood, illusion, understanding, falsehood – can bring a clarity and a refreshed sense of the life that our words take on in fully-described contexts of usage. And in these imagined contexts we can also see more acutely and deeply into the meaning of words about words – metaphor and figurative tropes, verbal coherence, intelligibility, implication, sense, and indeed the word “meaning” itself. Moving from a philosophical issue into a literary world in which the central concepts of that issue are in play can thus enrich our comprehension of those concepts and, in the strongest cases, substantively change the way we see them. With a combination of conceptual acuity and literary sensitivity, this volume maps out some of the territory that philosophical reflection and literary engagement share.

About Author:
Arthur Schopenhauer traveled in childhood throughout Europe and lived for a time in Goethe’s Weimar, where his mother had established a salon that attracted many of Europe’s leading intellectuals. As a young man, Schopenhauer studied at the University of Gottingen and in Berlin, where he attended the lectures of Fichte and Schleiermacher. Schopenhauer’s first work was The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (1813), followed by a treatise on the physiology of perception, On Vision and Colors (1816). When Schopenhauer wrote his principal work, The World as Will and Idea (1819), he was confident that it was a work of great importance that would soon win him fame, but in this he was badly disappointed. In 1819 he arranged to hold a series of philosophical lectures at the same time as those of the newly arrived professor Hegel, whom Schopenhauer despised (calling him, among other creative epithets, an “intellectual Caliban”). This move resulted only in further humiliation for Schopenhauer, since no one showed up to hear him. Schopenhauer continued to be frustrated in repeated attempts to achieve recognition. In 1839 and 1840 he submitted essays on freedom of the will and the foundation of morality to competitions sponsored by the Royal Danish Academy but he won no prize, even when his essay was the only entry in the competition. In 1844 he published a second volume of The World as Will and Idea, containing developments and commentaries on the first. Around 1850, toward the end of his life, Schopenhauer’s philosophy began to receive belated recognition, and he died in the confidence that his long-awaited and deserved fame had finally come. Schopenhauer’s philosophy exercised considerable influence in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, not only among academic philosophers but even more among artists and literati. This may be in part because, unlike his German idealist contemporaries, Schopenhauer is a lucid and even witty writer, whose style consciously owes more to Hume than to Kant. Schopenhauer’s philosophy is founded on the idea that reality is Will–a single, insatiable, objectless striving that manifests itself in the world of appearance as a vast multiplicity of phenomena, engaged in an endless and painful struggle with one another. He saw the same vision in the texts of Indian religions—Vedanta and Buddhism—which he regarded as vastly superior to Western monotheism. Schopenhauer’s theory of the empirical world is an idealism, in which the doctrines of Kant are identified with those of Berkeley. In aesthetic enjoyment Schopenhauer saw a form of knowledge that is higher than ordinary empirical knowledge because it is a disinterested contemplation of the forms or essences of things, rather than a cognition of causal connections between particulars driven by the will’s interest in control and domination. True salvation, however, lies in an intuitive insight into the evil of willing, which in its highest manifestations is capable of completely extinguishing the will in a state of nirvana. In his perceptive development of the psychological consequences of his theory, Schopenhauer gives particular emphasis to the way in which our knowledge and behavior are insidiously manipulated by our unconscious volition; this stress, plus the central role he gives to sexuality in his theory of the will, contains much that is found later in Freud (who acknowledged that Schopenhauer had anticipated his theory of repression). Schopenhauer’s main influence on twentieth-century philosophy, however, was mediated by Nietzsche, whose theory of the will to power added a poignant twist by committing itself to the affirmation of the will while still conceiving it in essentially the same way—insatiable, painful, predatory, deceptive, and subversive of rational thought—which it had been in Schopenhauer’s metaphysical pessimism.

“جهان و تأملات فیلسوف” شامل ۱۵ مقاله از آرتور شوپنهاور در مورد مسائل مختلف است. در “جهان و تأملات فیلسوف” بسیاری از دغدغه هایی که افراد به طور روزانه با آن ها روبرو می شوند مورد بررسی و توجه قرار گرفته اند. بخش ها و فصول این کتاب عبارتند از:
• دفتر اول
1. در باب اثبات اراده ی حیات
2. متافیزیک عشق
3. در باب زنان
4. در باب عبث بودن وجود
5. در باب آلام جهان
6. در باب خودکشی
7. گفتگویی در باب جاودانگی
8. راه رستگاری
• دفتر دوم
1. در باب نویسندگی و سبک
2. در باب مطالعه و کتب
3. در باب خودشناسی
4. در باب اهل فضل
5. چهره شناسی
6. در باب نبوغ
7. ملاحظات روانشناختی
در ابتدای کتاب جمله ای از شوپنهاور آمده است با این مضمون:
“زندگی پرسش دشواری است، من ترجیح می دهم آن را صرف تأمل بر خودش کنم.”
محتوای کتاب پیرامون همین جمله ارائه شده است. شوپنهاور جهانی مملو از رنج را به تصویر می کشد و این تصویر را با چنان نثری ارائه می کند که او را تا مقام یکی از بزرگترین نثرنویسان آلمان ارتقا می دهد. نثرش خوش آهنگ و ساده و مفهومی است و بسیاری از عباراتش به قدری نغز و دل انگیز و عمیق است که می توان آن ها را بارها خواند و لذت برد و حتی به خاطر سپرد. بی پرده و به صراحت سخن می گوید و از متلک پرانی و تمسخر و بعضا حتی فحاشی نیز ابایی ندارد. نیچه در مورد او می گوید: «مطلقا تنها بود و کمترین دوستی نداشت و فاصله ی میان یک و هیچ لایتناهی است. هیچ چیز متفکرین آلمان را به اندازه عدم شباهتی که میان شوپنهاور و آنان بود رنج نداد.
این کتاب یکی از بهترین کتاب هایی است که نظرات شوپنهاور رو در مسایل مختلف مورد بررسی قرار میده ، قسمت اول شوپنهاور جهان رو و عشق و زن رو توصیف میکنه ، جملاتی بسیار زیبا مانند : زمان حال چیست ؟ آن دمی که میگذرد و دمی دیگر نیست ما یکسره در بین گذشته و آینده زندگی میکنیم . خواندن این کتاب دیدی وسیع نسبت به وضعیت انسان در جهان می دهد.

درباره نویسنده:
آرتور شوپنهاور، زاده ی سال 1788 و درگذشته ی سال 1860، فیلسوفی آلمانی و یکی از بزرگترین اندیشمندان اروپا بود.شوپنهاور در شهر دانزیگ از پدری هلندی و مادری آلمانی به دنیا آمد. پدرش بازرگان بود اما او رغبتی به تجارت نداشت و به تحصیل علم بیشتر علاقه بود. شوپنهاور 17 سال بیشتر نداشت که پدرش خودکشی کرد و بعد از آن مادرش به وایمار رفت.او در دانشگاه ابتدا به تحصیل طب پرداخت، سپس به علوم طبیعی و بعد از آن، به فلسفه روی آورد. شوپنهاور در سال 1813 با نوشتن رساله ای درباره ی فلسفه از دانشگاه ینا، مدرک دکتری گرفت.او چندی بعد توسط یک هندو از عقاید بودائیان آگاهی یافت و پس از تجسس و تفکر زیاد به آئین بودایی اعتقاد کامل یافت. شوپنهاور تا آخر عمر ازدواج نکرد و ازدواج را مسئولیتی احمقانه در نظر می گرفت.اگر حرف زدن با دیگران در طول روز باعث خستگی اش می شد، در را روی هیچ کس باز نمی کرد و ساعت ده شب هم می خوابید. شوپنهاور با شیوع بیماری وبا، برلین را به مقصد فرانکفورت ترک کرد و تا آخر عمر در همان جا ماند.

Additional information

Weight 0.270 kg
Dimensions 26 × 22 × 3 cm
Author - نویسنده

Translator - مترجم

Published - تاریخ انتشار

Language - زبان

Book Size (cm) - اندازه و قطع کتاب

Format - نوع کتاب

Publisher - ناشر

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